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In Case You Missed It: Lichens Edition

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Armour: NFL can’t afford to miss on chief medical officer hire – USA TODAY

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USA TODAY
Armour: NFL can’t afford to miss on chief medical officer hire
USA TODAY
The head of the league’s research subcommittee, Russell Lonser, cites the treatment of “brain, temporal bone and spinal cord tumors,” as his areas of clinical and surgical interest on the Society of Neurological Surgeons website. And Betsy Nabel, the
Ten Years of Goodell, from a Player’s Point of ViewMonday Morning Quarterback
NFLPA President Eric Winston On Frustrations W CBA, Goodell, Brady And More by SiriusXM Rush | Free Listening on …SoundCloud
New questions about NFL doctorESPN

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Nanomedicine approaches in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Publication date: 28 September 2016
Source:Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 238
Author(s): Andra-Sorina Tatar, Timea Nagy-Simon, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Sanda Boca, Simion Astilean
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the malignancy with the highest incidence amongst children (26% of all cancer cases), being surpassed only by the cancers of the brain and of the nervous system. The most recent research on ALL is focusing on new molecular therapies, like targeting specific biological structures in key points in the cell cycle, or using selective inhibitors for transmembranary proteins involved in cell signalling, and even aiming cell surface receptors with specifically designed antibodies for active targeting. Nanomedicine approaches, especially by the use of nanoparticle-based compounds for the delivery of drugs, cancer diagnosis or therapeutics may represent new and modern ways in the near future anti-cancer therapies. This review offers an overview on the recent role of nanomedicine in the detection and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as resulting from a thorough literature survey. A short introduction on the basics of ALL is presented followed by the description of the conventional methods used in the ALL detection and treatment. We follow our discussion by introducing some of the general nano-strategies used for cancer detection and treatment. The detailed role of organic and inorganic nanoparticles in ALL applications is further presented, with a special focus on gold nanoparticle-based nanocarriers of antileukemic drugs.

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Sustained release of stromal cell derived factor-1 from an antioxidant thermoresponsive hydrogel enhances dermal wound healing in diabetes

Publication date: 28 September 2016
Source:Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 238
Author(s): Yunxiao Zhu, Ryan Hoshi, Siyu Chen, Ji Yi, Chongwen Duan, Robert D. Galiano, Hao F. Zhang, Guillermo A. Ameer
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Altered cell migration due to microcirculatory deficiencies as well as excessive and prolonged reactive oxygen species production are implicated in the delayed healing of DFUs. The goal of this research was to assess whether sustained release of SDF-1, a chemokine that promotes endothelial progenitor cell homing and angiogenesis, from a citrate-based antioxidant thermoresponsive polymer would significantly improve impaired dermal wound healing in diabetes. Poly (polyethylene glycol citrate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PPCN) was synthesized via sequential polycondensation and free radical polymerization reactions. SDF-1 was entrapped via gelation of the PPCN+SDF-1 solution above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and its release and bioactivity was measured. The effect of sustained release of SDF-1 from PPCN (PPCN+SDF-1) versus a bolus application of SDF-1 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on wound healing was evaluated in a diabetic murine splinted excisional dermal wound model using gross observation, histology, immunohistochemistry, and optical coherence tomography microangiography. Increasing PPCN concentration decreased SDF-1 release rate. The time to 50% wound closure was 11days, 16days, 14days, and 17days for wounds treated with PPCN+SDF-1, SDF-1 only, PPCN only, and PBS, respectively. Wounds treated with PPCN+SDF-1 had the shortest time for complete healing (24days) and exhibited accelerated granulation tissue production, epithelial maturation, and the highest density of perfused blood vessels. In conclusion, sustained release of SDF-1 from PPCN is a promising and easy to use therapeutic strategy to improve the treatment of chronic non-healing DFUs.

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Non-specific binding and steric hindrance thresholds for penetration of particulate drug carriers within tumor tissue

Publication date: 28 September 2016
Source:Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 238
Author(s): Jimena G. Dancy, Aniket S. Wadajkar, Craig S. Schneider, Joseph R.H. Mauban, Olga G. Goloubeva, Graeme F. Woodworth, Jeffrey A. Winkles, Anthony J. Kim
Therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs) approved for clinical use in solid tumor therapy provide only modest improvements in patient survival, in part due to physiological barriers that limit delivery of the particles throughout the entire tumor. Here, we explore the thresholds for NP size and surface poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) density for penetration within tumor tissue extracellular matrix (ECM). We found that NPs as large as 62nm, but less than 110nm in diameter, diffused rapidly within a tumor ECM preparation (Matrigel) and breast tumor xenograft slices ex vivo. Studies of PEG-density revealed that increasing PEG density enhanced NP diffusion and that PEG density below a critical value led to adhesion of NP to ECM. Non-specific binding of NPs to tumor ECM components was assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which revealed excellent correlation with the particle diffusion results. Intravital microscopy of NP spread in breast tumor tissue confirmed a significant difference in tumor tissue penetration between the 62 and 110nm PEG-coated NPs, as well as between PEG-coated and uncoated NPs. SPR assays also revealed that Abraxane, an FDA-approved non-PEGylated NP formulation used for cancer therapy, binds to tumor ECM. Our results establish limitations on the size and surface PEG density parameters required to achieve uniform and broad dispersion within tumor tissue and highlight the utility of SPR as a high throughput method to screen NPs for tumor penetration.

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