Propolis has a long history of use in folk medicine and possesses various biological activities. Effects of the methanol extract of Nigerian red propolis (NRP) in trypanosome-infected rats were studied. Mature albino Wistar rats (30) were randomly grouped into six (A–F). Groups A–E were infected with 1.0 × 106Trypanosoma brucei brucei organisms intraperitoneally. Group F was uninfected. On establishment of infection, groups A–C were treated orally with NRP at 600, 400 and 200 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days while group D received diminazene aceturate at 7 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. Group E received equal volumes of DMSO solution for five consecutive days. Parameters monitored were mean group parasitaemia, packed cell volumes (PCV), haemoglobin concentrations (Hbc) and bodyweight changes. By day 16 post-infection (PI) parasitaemia was significantly higher in the DMSO control group E than in the NRP-treated groups. Mean group PCV, Hbc and weight loss were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in DMSO control group when compared with all the other experimental groups. Rats treated with NRP (600 and 400 mg/kg) had significant (p < 0.05) reduction in parasitaemia (day 16 PI), higher PCV, Hbc and weight gain than the DMSO control.